The problem

P08 Eliminate consecutive duplicates of list elements. If a list contains repeated elements they should be replaced with a single copy of the element. The order of the elements should not be changed.


scala> compress(List('a, 'a, 'a, 'a, 'b, 'c, 'c, 'a, 'a, 'd, 'e, 'e, 'e, 'e))
res0: List[Symbol] = List('a, 'b, 'c, 'a, 'd, 'e)

Initial thoughts

This task seems to be easy to accomplish. It should be all about filtering incoming elements based on the last element added to the list.

The recursive solution

def compress[A](l: List[A]):List[A] = l match {
    case Nil => Nil
    case h::List() => List(h)
    case h::tail if (h == tail.head) => compress(tail)
    case h::tail => h::compress(tail)

Instead of adding one element and then discarding the successive if equal, the point here is to discard elements until a new one pops up.


The folding methods of List types are very suitable for this task, as they scan the whole list carrying the result of previous applications.

I already used foldLeft() so this was my first pick

def compress[A](l: List[A]):List[A] = l.foldLeft(List[A]()) {
    case (List(), e) => List(e)
    case (ls, e) if (ls.last == e) => ls
    case (ls, e) => ls:::List(e)

The initial value given to the folding method is an empty list. Then if the previous result is empty (i.e. when scanning the first element) the result is a list with that element. If the current element is already in the result (second case) the result is returned unchanged. Otherwise, the new element is appended at the end of the result.

Since appending a list to an empty list is just like returning the list itself we may join the first and third cases with a modified pattern guard

def compress[A](l: List[A]):List[A] = l.foldLeft(List[A]()) {
    case (ls, e) if (ls.isEmpty || ls.last != e) => ls:::List(e)
    case (ls, e) => ls

Left folding implies appending new values at the end of the result list, which is syntactically less straightforward than appending at the beginning (list:::List(t) vs h::list). So we may fold from right with foldRight()

def compress[A](l: List[A]):List[A] = l.foldRight(List[A]()) {
    case (e, ls) if (ls.isEmpty || ls.head != e) => e::ls
    case (e, ls) => ls

Remember that foldLeft() accepts a tuple in the form (result, element), while foldRight() wants a tuple in the form (element, result).

Final considerations

Folding became more clear with this exercise. It's a good thing to learn ho to reverse algorithms to use foldLeft() or foldRight() according to the task we are performing.


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