OOP concepts in Python 2.x - Part 3


Welcome to the third installment of this little series of posts about Python 2.x OOP implementation. The first and second issues introduced the most important concepts at the basis of Python as an object-oriented language.

This post will continue the discussion about metaclasses, introducing Abstract Base Classes, and give some insights on callable objects.

This post refers to the internals of Python 2.x - please note that Python 3.x changes (improves!) some of the features shown here. You can find the updated version here.

The Inspection Club

As you know, Python leverages polymorphism at its maximum by dealing only with generic references to objects. This makes OOP not an addition to the language but part of its structure from the ground up. Moreover, Python pushes the ... more

Method overriding in Python

What is overriding? Overriding is the ability of a class to change the implementation of a method provided by one of its ancestors.

Overriding is a very important part of OOP since it is the feature that makes inheritance exploit its full power. Through method overriding a class may "copy" another class, avoiding duplicated code, and at the same time enhance or customize part of it. Method overriding is thus a strict part of the inheritance mechanism.

A quick glance to inheritance

As for most OOP languages, in Python inheritance works through implicit delegation: when the object cannot satisfy a request, it first tries to forward the request to its ancestors, following the specific language rules in the case of multiple inheritance.

An exemple:

class Parent(object):
    def ... more

OOP concepts in Python 2.x - Part 2


This post continues the analysis of the Python OOP implementation started with this post, which I recommend reading before taking on this new one.

This second post discusses the following OOP features in Python:

  • Polymorphism
  • Classes and instances (again)
  • Metaclasses
  • Object creation

This post refers to the internals of Python 2.x - please note that Python 3.x changes (improves!) some of the features shown here. You can find the updated version here.

Good Morning, Polymorphism

The term polymorphism, in the OOP lingo, refers to the ability of an object to adapt the code to the type of the data it is processing.

Polymorphism has two major applications in an OOP language. The first is that an object may provide different implementations of one of its methods depending on the type of ... more

OOP concepts in Python 2.x - Part 1


Object-oriented programming (OOP) has been the leading programming paradigm for several decades now, starting from the initial attempts back in the 60s to some of the most important languages used nowadays. Being a set of programming concepts and design methodologies, OOP can never be said to be "correctly" or "fully" implemented by a language: indeed there are as many implementations as languages.

So one of the most interesting aspects of OOP languages is to understand how they implement those concepts. In this post I am going to try and start analyzing the OOP implementation of the Python language. Due to the richness of the topic, however, I consider this attempt just like a set of thoughts for Python beginners trying to find their way into this beautiful (and sometimes peculiar) language.

This first post covers the following topics:

  • Objects and types
  • Classes and instances
  • Object members: methods and attributes
  • Delegation: ... more

Digging up Django class-based views - 3

This post refers to Django 1.5. Please be warned that some of the matters discussed here, some solutions or the given code can be outdated by more recent Django versions

In the first two issues of this short series we wandered around the basic concepts of class-based views in Django, and started understanding and using two of the basic generic views Django makes available to you: ListView and DetailView. Both are views that read some data from the database and show them on a rendered template.

This third issue wants to introduce the reader to the class-based version of Django forms. This post is not meant to be a full introduction to the Django form library; rather, I want to show how class-based generic views implement the CUD part of the CRUD operations (Create, Read, Update, Delete), the Read one being implemented by "standard" generic views.

A very basic example

To start working with CBFs (class-based forms) let's say we are working with ... more

Digging up Django class-based views - 2


This post refers to Django 1.5. Please be warned that some of the matters discussed here, some solutions or the given code can be outdated by more recent Django versions

In the first installment of this short series, I introduced the theory behind Django class-based views and the reason why in this context classes are more powerful than pure functions. I also introduced one of the generic views Django provides out-of-the-box, which is ListView.

In this second post I want to talk about the second most used generic view, DetailView, and about custom querysets and arguments. Last, I'm going to introduce unspecialized class-based views that allow you to build more complex Web pages. To fully understand DetailView, however, you need to grasp two essential concepts, namely querysets and view parameters. So I'm sorry for the learn-by-doing readers, but this time too I'm going to start with some pure ... more

Digging up Django class-based views - 1


This post refers to Django 1.5. Please be warned that some of the matters discussed here, some solutions or the given code can be outdated by more recent Django versions

Django programmers that started with versions prior to 1.3 are used to deal with views as functions, and they learned how to process even complex forms in a procedural way. From the release 1.3, Django introduced class-based views (CBVs) and ported its powerful generic views to this new paradigm (class-based generic views, or CBGVs).

This change, however, has not been harmless for Django novices: the django-users mailing list and StackOverflow are full of questions about views and classes, and the official documentation on this topic is still a little unorganized. Well, open source things are always ready to be improved, aren't they? This post aims to share some thoughts and insights about CBVs, and hopefully it can also lead to an improvement of the official documentation.

I want to thank ... more

Postage - a RabbitMQ-based component Python library

Pika is a wonderful pure Python implementation of the AMQP protocol. Using it you can exploit the full power of your RabbitMQ installation from your Python code.

When using pika to develop a component-based system I tried to write some code to simplify its use: the result is Postage, a Python library that provides higher level structures such as a message format, components fingerprint, rich producer and consumers.

Most notably it provides a handler mechanism for consumers that makes message processing a breeze.

Postage is freely available under the GPL2. It is based on the pika BlockingConnection since I had no experience with other adapters. If you want to hack it, feel free to fork it on Github and submit a pull request.

A simple ping example

I'll describe here a very simple example of a producer/consumer system using ... more

Python Generators - From Iterators to Cooperative Multitasking - 3


In this third issue we move on uncovering how generators can be the foundation of a cooperative multitasking system and show some code that implements it. Before we face this topic we will talk shortly about another interesting use of generators, namely generator expressions chains.

Chaining generator expressions

At PyCon 2008 David M. Beazley, author of “Python Essential Reference”, made a very interesting speech about the use of generators in system administration, in other words where usually more or less complex bash scripts are involved and in particular where long pipe sequences are used.

David starts from the consideration that generators, producing one element at a time, are chainable, that is a generator expression can encompass another generator expression and so on. This way he shows how to write in a very compact and reusable way components that can act as “filters” on a data set, thus following the Unix philosophy of building tools that “do one ... more

Python Generators - From Iterators to Cooperative Multitasking - 2


After the recap of the iteration process in Python, in this post we will introduce the concept of generator, which aims to solve some problems that arise from the use of iterators.


The for construct is generally simple to use and such a loop can be found in almost all programming languages. Its implementation, however, can be problematic in some cases. Let’s look at an example:

def sequence(num):
    s = []
    i = 0
    while i != num:
        s.append(... more